Copenhagen, - Efforts to protect tropical forests in the world by paying the countries that have forests to sustain its existence suspended. World leaders failed to approve the agreement binding in konerensi climate change in Copenhagen, Danish which ended yesterday.

In fact, burning trees for the provision of land or livestock and plantation forest logging for timber has resulted in 20 percent of greenhouse gas emissions world. This figure is equivalent to the carbon dioxide produced by all cars, trucks, trains, aircraft, and ships around the world.

Approximately 13 million hectares of forest land harvested each year. This figure is equivalent to the size of the UK or the state of New York, USA. Based on data reported by Eliasch Review, emissions resulting from deforestation is equivalent to the emissions produced by China and the U.S.. Deforestation due to logging, farming, and agriculture has put Indonesia and Brazil as the largest emitter of the third and fourth in the world, after China and the U.S..

"The absence of a binding agreement causes of forest destruction continues, the rights of people whose lives depend on the forest will be protected and not reduced populations of endangered animals," said Stephen Leonard of the Australian Orangutan Project.

Executive Director of the Coalition of Rainforest Nations, Kevin Conrad, saying, REDD, or reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation will only be decided next year. "This is very sad. This means I have to spend one more year ... to come to meetings and talk about the things the same," he said.

However, some parties say, even without the legal framework, REDD memeroleh advantage of the meeting in Copenhagen. At least, world leaders agreed in Copenhagen to raise $ 30 billion U.S. dollars over the next three years, and 100 billion dollars until the year 2020, to help poor countries. Surely some of this money will be used for forestry programs.

"Failure to produce a comprehensive agreement on the forests is very disappointing," said Michael Levi, a senior in the field of energy and environment at the Council on Foreign Relations.

"But if the state could disburse the funds advanced 100 billion dollars each year as directed in the Copenhagen Accord, there is no doubt that this will help efforts to protect forests," he added.

REDD will be financed by rich countries or through the mechanism of carbon trading - a system in which each country will have a platform emissions. This system allows countries that produce emissions below the platform to sell emissions credits to countries that produce emissions exceeding platforms.

Two years ago, Norway announced its commitment to spend U.S. $ 500 million to reduce deforestation on climate change meeting in Bali. "And now, the U.S. has shown his willingness to play a role in the same group," said President of the Union of Concerned Scientists Kevin Knobloch.

Bencana di depan mata

JAKARTA, - Malapetaka akibat pemanasan global yang mengakibatkan perubahan iklim mengancam semua makhluk tanpa kecuali. Sebagai salah satu upaya menghindarkan petaka tersebut, mulai hari ini, Senin (7/12), utusan lebih dari 190 negara mulai berunding dalam Konferensi Perubahan Iklim PBB di Kopenhagen, Denmark.

Pada Pertemuan Para Pihak Ke-15 (COP-15) Konferensi Perubahan Iklim PBB (UNCCC) ini akan berlangsung negosiasi untuk mencapai kesepakatan baru sebagai pengganti skema Protokol Kyoto yang akan berakhir masa berlakunya pada 2012. Sebanyak 145 negara meratifikasi Protokol Kyoto yang disetujui pada 1997.

Fenomena pemanasan global, menurut pakar agroklimatologi yang juga reviewer emisi karbon negara-negara maju dalam Annex I, Rizaldi Boer, sudah terjadi di Indonesia.

Pendapat senada dinyatakan Kepala Pusat Perubahan Iklim dan Kualitas Udara Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) Edvin Aldrian di Jakarta, Sabtu (5/12).

Menurut Edvin, pemanasan global di antaranya terlihat dari perubahan suhu permukaan di seluruh wilayah di Indonesia.

Berdasarkan data dari BMKG tentang perubahan suhu minimum dan maksimum yang terpantau pada 1980-2002 di 33 stasiun pemantau, kenaikan tertinggi perubahan suhu maksimum di Denpasar, Bali, sebesar 0,087 derajat celsius per tahun. Sementara kenaikan tertinggi perubahan suhu maksimum ada di Polonia, Medan, Sumatera Utara, sebesar 0,172 derajat celsius.

”Besarannya berbeda di setiap kota,” ujar Edvin. Kenaikan suhu merupakan kecenderungan yang sedang dihadapi dunia.

Sejumlah bukti ilmiah menunjukkan, kenaikan suhu global pada abad ke-21 diperkirakan 2-4,5 derajat celsius akibat meningkatnya konsentrasi gas rumah kaca di atmosfer.

Di Indonesia, perubahan itu terasa pada panjang pendeknya musim hujan atau kemarau. Secara umum, perubahan iklim berdampak pada musim hujan memendek, sebaliknya musim kemarau semakin panjang.

Di bidang pertanian, hal itu berdampak langsung pada hasil panen. ”Gagal panen dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir kian sering,” kata Rizaldi, yang juga dosen sekaligus Direktur Pusat Pengelolaan Risiko dan Peluang Iklim Kawasan Asia Pasifik (CCROM SEAP) IPB.

Dampak kelautannya, iklim ekstrem mengganggu pelayaran dan nelayan karena badai tropis kian sering. Gelombang tinggi juga kian sering mengganggu nelayan. Nelayan sekarang melaut rata-rata tinggal 200 hari setahun dibandingkan dengan 10 tahun lalu yang bisa 365 hari setahun.

”Nelayan harus tambah ongkos alat dan bahan bakar karena ikan-ikan berenang kian dalam,” kata Direktur Pesisir dan Lautan Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan Subandono Diposaptono.

Memendeknya musim hujan berbanding terbalik dengan musim kering. Interval kedatangan El Nino pun kian sering menjadi sekali dalam 3-4 tahun, yang semula 7 tahun rentangnya. El Nino akan diikuti musim kering yang panjang yang berpotensi timbulkan kebakaran hutan.

Malapetaka global

Berdasarkan perkiraan sejumlah ahli, suhu Bumi saat ini meningkat 0,5 derajat celsius dari level 150 tahun silam. Kenaikan akan terus meningkat jika tak ada kemauan negara maju menurunkan laju emisi.

Kenaikan muka laut sudah terasa di sejumlah negara, termasuk Indonesia. Kota Semarang, Belawan (Medan), dan Jakarta merupakan kota terdampak kenaikan muka laut itu, berkisar 5-9,37 milimeter per tahun pada tahun 1990-an. Berdasarkan skenario Panel Internasional Antarpemerintah untuk Perubahan Iklim (IPCC), kenaikan suhu Bumi hingga 6 derajat celsius berpotensi menaikkan muka laut hingga 1 meter pada tahun 2100. Puluhan juta penduduk di seluruh dunia akan terancam migrasi karena banjir, kekurangan air, dan iklim ekstrem.

Kondisi Jakarta

Sementara itu, Jakarta hingga kini masih berpredikat sebagai salah satu kota besar penghasil polusi udara terbesar di dunia. Emisi karbon yang dihasilkan kendaraan bermotor dan industri juga besar. Untuk itu, sejak enam tahun terakhir, Jakarta mulai berbenah.

”Perang melawan dampak buruk perubahan iklim dilakukan dengan dua strategi, yaitu adaptasi dan mitigasi. Adaptasi yaitu bagaimana kita berupaya membenahi lingkungan yang mengalami kerusakan dan mitigasi atau pencegahan,” kata Kepala Badan Pengelola Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (BPLHD) DKI Jakarta Peni Susanti, Minggu.

Menurut dia, beberapa upaya adaptasi, misalnya, dengan penanaman bakau di lahan seluas 344 hektar di pesisir Jakarta Utara, khususnya di kawasan Kapuk. Sementara upaya mitigasi, antara lain, dengan penerapan uji emisi kendaraan bermotor, pemberlakuan hari bebas kendaraan bermotor rutin setiap bulan, kampanye pengelolaan sampah dan mengurangi pembuangan sampah tidak pada tempatnya, serta pembuatan sumur resapan maupun lubang biopori.

Gubernur DKI Fauzi Bowo dalam pertemuan The Asia Pacific Weeks 2009 di Berlin, Jerman, awal Oktober lalu, menekankan, ada banyak hal yang diprogramkan DKI untuk turut melawan dampak perubahan iklim. Program besar yang telah dicanangkan adalah penggunaan bahan bakar gas untuk bus transjakarta dan sebagian bajaj.

Akhir 2009, Jakarta juga menjajaki kemungkinan melebarkan pelayanan bus jalur khusus ke Bekasi dan Tangerang. Pertemuan antarpemerintah wilayah terkait mulai dilakukan. Semua ini dilakukan, kata Fauzi, untuk menyediakan angkutan umum yang nyaman untuk mengurangi emisi karbon.

Perubahan gaya hidup

Anggota Forum Pengembangan Kota Berkelanjutan, Nana Firman, mengingatkan, semua orang sebenarnya berkontribusi pada isu perubahan iklim karena pada setiap aktivitasnya setiap manusia mengeluarkan emisi karbon. ”Mobilitas kita dengan kendaraan itu mengeluarkan emisi karbon karena memakai bahan bakar fosil, bensin. Juga ketika kita membeli barang dan menggunakan barang-barang elektronik. Bahan bakar pembangkit listrik juga bahan bakar fosil, batu bara,” ujarnya.

”Karena kita berkontribusi dan kita menyadari dampaknya, kita harus bertanggung jawab. Untuk itu, kita harus ada niat yang disusul dengan upaya. Upaya ini adalah upaya mengubah perilaku,” ujarnya.

Beberapa perilaku yang bisa diubah demi mengurangi emisi karbon antara lain memilih kendaraan yang lebih kecil emisinya, misal menggunakan kendaraan umum, atau bahkan tanpa mengeluarkan emisi seperti naik sepeda atau jalan kaki.

Ia menyadari, ”Masih banyak PR yang harus dikerjakan karena kesadaran kita bahwa kita berkontribusi pada pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim masih sangat rendah.”

KOPENHAGEN, - Sekretaris Eksekutif Konvensi Badan Dunia untuk Perubahan Iklim (UNFCCC), Yvo de Boer optimistis KTT Perubahan Iklim ke-15 akan menghasilkan kesepakatan internasional yang efektif dan ambisius.

Yvo de Boer dalam konferensi pers di Kopenhagen, Minggu (6/12), mengatakan, dalam waktu kurang dari dua minggu, negara-negara peserta konvensi UNFCCC harus memberikan respons yang memadai untuk tantangan penting dari perubahan iklim.

"Para negosiator sekarang mempunyai sinyal yang terkuat dari para pemimpin dunia untuk membuat proposal negosiasi bisa dilaksanakan dalam aksi," kata de Boer.

Merujuk pada beberapa janji pengurangan emisi yang telah dibuat oleh negara-negara maju dan berkembang pada pertemuan menjelang COP-15, dia mengatakan hal tersebut merupakan momentum politik yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya untuk menghasilkan kesepakatan yang ambisius di Kopenhagen.

"Belum pernah selama 17 tahun dalam perundingan iklim terdapat begitu banyak negara-negara yang telah mengonfirmasi janji penurunan emisi bersama," kata petinggi UNFCCC tersebut.

Oleh karena itu, de Boer mengatakan, konvensi di Kopenhagen telah menjadi titik balik respons internasional untuk perubahan iklim.

Ada tiga tahapan aksi bagi pemerintah yang harus dilakukan selama dua minggu konvensi yaitu implementasi yang cepat dan efektif untuk aksi segera pada perubahan iklim, komitmen yang tinggi untuk mengurangi dan membatasi emisi, termasuk pendanaan awal dan komitmen pendanaan jangka panjang, serta satu visi jangka panjang bersama untuk pembangunan rendah emisi di masa mendatang.

Ia mengatakan pada 2010, perlu segera dilakukannya aksi mendesak pada pengurangan emisi, adaptasi dari dampak
yang tidak terhindarkan dari perubahan iklim, pembiayaan yang cukup, teknologi, pengurangan emisi dari penggundulan hutan di negara berkembang (REDD) dan peningkatan kapasitas.

Negara-negara maju akan menyediakan pembiayaan segera untuk memenuhi paling tidak 10 miliar dolar AS per tahun sampai 2012 untuk membantu negara-negara berkembang untuk membuat dan meluncurkan strategi adaptasi dan pertumbuhan rendah emisi segera, serta membangun kapasitas internal.

Pada kesempatan yang sama, negara-negara maju perlu menunjukkan bagaimana keseriusan mereka dalam pembiayaan jangka panjang yang mungkin dan berlanjut, serta bagaimana komitmen jangka panjang mereka.

Ketua Kelompok Kerja Ad-hoc untuk Kerja Sama Jangka Panjang UNFCCC (Chair of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention/AWG-LCA), Michael Zammit Cutajar mengatakan, KTT Perubahan Iklim di Kopenhagen harus sukses mengantarkan janji UNFCCC, yang akan mengubah jalan semua negara melakukan aksi dan kerjasama untuk menangani perubahan iklim.

Berdasarkan Panel Antarpemerintah pada Perubahan Iklim (the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/IPCC), pengurangan emisi bersama oleh negara-negara maju antara 25 - 40 persen dari emisi level 1990 pada 2020 untuk mengamankan dari dampak paling buruk dari perubahan iklim, dan target penurunan emisi paling tidak 50 persen pada 2050.

Meski IPCC telah menyatakan skenario tersebut, diprediksi hanya ada 50 persen peluang untuk menghindari konsekuensi bencana yang paling mengerikan akibat perubahan iklim.

Sedangkan Ketua Kelompok Kerja sama Komitmen Kedua Protokol Kyoto (the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol), John Ashe mengatakan, ada dua hal yang perlu dilakukan yaitu perlunya peningkatan level komitmen negara-negara maju sesuai target masing-masing negara.

Selain itu dibutuhkannya suatu cara dan aturan yang dapat memantau secara cepat dari pencapaian target negara-negara maju, seperti mekanisme pasar karbon, serta penggunaan lahan dan pengalihan fungsi lahan (LULUCF).

KTT Perubahan Iklim yang digelar pada 7 - 18 Desember di Kopenhagen, Denmark, diperkirakan akan diikuti oleh lebih dari 15.000 partisipan, termasuk delegasi dari 192 negara. Sekitar 60 kepala negara termasuk Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Presiden Amerika Barrack Obama, Kanselir Jerman Angela Merkel dan Presiden Prancis Nikolas Zarkosky bakal menghadiri KTT Perubahan Iklim yang ke-15 tersebut.

taukah anda listrik???

JAKARTA, - Tahukah Anda? Konsumsi listrik di Jakarta pada tahun 2007 hampir mencapai 23 persen total konsumsi listrik seluruh Indonesia. Sedangkan di akhir tahun 2005 cadangan listrik di Jawa-Bali hanya tinggal 120 megawatt padahal idealnya cadangan minimum listrik yang harus tersedia sebesar 600 megawatt.

Secara global, sektor ketenaga listrikan telah menyumbang hampir 40 persen emisi karbon. Data di atas dipaparkan dalam papan-papan di zona listrik Green Festival Jakarta, Minggu (5/12) yang digelar di Parkir Timur Senayan.

Selain memaparkan kondisi ketenaga listrikan saat ini, zona listrik juga memperlihatkan data dari mana listrik berasal, grafik penggunaan listrik di Jawa, Madura, dan Bali yang menunjukkan penggunaan listrik terbesar terjadi pada pukul 18.00-20.00 serta beberapa tips menghemat listrik misalnya menghemat listirk pada kulkas, kipas angin, pendingin ruangan dan televisi.

Untuk menghemat listrik pada kulkas misalnya, dengan menutup pintu kulkas dengan rapat atau tidak memasukkan makanan atau minuman panas ke dalam kulkas. Selain memaparkan data, zona listrik Green Festival juga memutar video kartun lingkungan yang menyerukan untuk mengganti bohlam lampu dengan yang lebih hemat.

Tersedia pula informasi mengenai sumber energi alternatif seperti tenaga angin, panas bumi, air, energi surya, dan geothermal. Disampaikan bahwa energi geothermal merupakan energi yang dihasilkan dari interaksi panas batuan dengan air yang mengalir di sekitarnya. Interaksi tersebut kemudian menghasilkan uap yang dimanfaatkan untuk menggerakkan turbin dan menghasilkan listrik.

Zona listrik adalah salah satu zona yang tersedia di area Green Festival 2009 yang digelar di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta 5-6 Desember. Jumlah pengunjung yang memadati zona ini cukup banyak mulai dari anak-anak, remaja hingga orangtua.

Green Festival 2009 merupakan kampanye tahunan isu pemanasan global diselenggarakan Green Initiative Forum di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta, 5-6 Desember. Tujuannya untuk membangun kesadaran masyarakat dan menyebarluaskan isu pemanasan global.

Racun asap kendaraan

JAKARTA, - Tahukah Anda, asap kendaraan bermotor menyumbang 26 persen dari total emisi yang dihasilkan di Indonesia dan menyebabkan 60-90 persen dari seluruh polusi di negara-negara industri?

Menurut data Bappenas, setiap kali kendaraan mengeluarkan asap, sekitar 1.000 unsur beracun yang terkandung di dalamnya turut mengotori udara. Demikian informasi mengenai asap kendaraan yang dipaparkan di papan kuning zona kendaraan Green Festival, Minggu (6/12) di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta.

Unsur-unsur beracun yang terkandung asap kendaraan seperti karbon monoksida, karbon dioksida, partikulat, ozon, timbel, dan sulfur dioksida pada akhirnya dapat menimbulkan penyakit seperti infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA). Menurut data Bappenas, pada tahun 2005 penderita rawat inap akibat ISPA mencapai 125 ribu orang. Lebih mengenaskan lagi, sekitar 6.000 orang meninggal akibat ISPA di tahun 2005.

Zona kendaraan merupakan salah satu zona yang digelar di Green Festival untuk memperkenalkan kepada pengunjung bahaya asap kendaraan. Selain mendapat beragam informasi, di zona ini pengunjung dapat mencoba bersepeda yang dinilai sebagai alat transportasi ramah lingkungan karena tidak mengeluarkan asap.

Menurut informasi di papan kuning lainnya, bersepeda selama 20 menit per hari dapat menghemat 1,2 liter bahan bakar minyak. Untuk itu, disarankan jika ingin bepergian jarak dekat, gunakanlah sepeda.

Seperti diberitakan sebelumnya, Green Festival 2009 memiliki beberapa zona yakni zona kendaraan, zona air, zona sampah, zona listrik, dan zona pohon. Masing-masing zona memberikan informasi terkait zona yang dimaksud.

Green Festival 2009 sendiri merupakan acara kampanye tahunan yang bertujuan menyebarluaskan sekaligus menyadarkan masyarakat akan bahaya pemanasan global. Digelar oleh Green Initiative Forum di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta, 5-6 Desember, Green Festival 2009 dipadati pengunjung di hari keduanya.

lingkungan hidup

JAKARTA, - Sekitar enam miliar orang di dunia menggantungkan oksigennya dari hutan dunia yang luasnya hanya 30 persen dari seluruh total daratan bumi. Di Indonesia saja, menurut data Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia, di tahun 2007 area hutan Indonesia sekitar 133 juta hektar dari 191 juta hektar luas daratan.

Sedangkan di Amerika, luas hutannya hanya 303 juta hektar dari 916 juta hektar total luas daratannya.

Informasi mengenai perbandingan luas area hutan dan luas negara tersebut dipaparkan pada papan hijau zona hutan Green Festival 2009 di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta, Minggu (6/12).

Untuk area hutan di Indonesia, menurut informasi di papan zona hutan, Indonesia memiliki kawasan hutan yang sangat luas, yakni sekitar 133,7 juta hektar yang luasnya lebih besar dibandingkan hutan di Inggris, Jerman, Perancis, dan Finlandia.

Indonesia juga memiliki hutan bakau atau mangrove terluas di dunia, yakni sekitar 19 persen dari total luas hutan bakau di dunia ada di Indonesia pada tahun 2005. Sementara di tahun 2008, menurut data Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup, luas hutan bakau di Indonesia sekitar 9,2 juta hektar.

Dari 9,2 juta hektar hutan bakau yang ada, menurut data di papan zona pohon, hanya 2,5 juta hektar yang berkondisi baik. Sisanya, 4,5 juta hektar rusak sedang, dan 2,1 juta hektar dinyatakan rusak. Kondisi tersebut patut disayangkan. Pasalnya, tanaman bakau sangat berguna menahan abrasi dan gelombang tsunami.

Disampaikan pula di papan zona pohon, secara umum pohon memiliki banyak fungsi. Pohon mampu menyerap karbon dioksida, mengeluarkan oksigen, dan menurunkan suhu udara dengan uap air dari daunnya. Satu pohon mampu memberi oksigen untuk 18 orang per tahun. Dalam setahun, satu pohon bisa menyerap karbondioksida sebanyak yang dihasilkan mobil yang berjalan sejauh 14 km.

Selain itu pohon turut meningkatkan kualitas air dengan memperlambat dan menyaring air hujan serta menjaga tanah. Akar pohon mampu menjaga tanah tetap stabil dan mencegah erosi. Zona Pohon Green Festival 2009 memberikan pendidikan lingkungan kepada pengunjung, terutama yang berkaitan dengan pohon.

Di zona ini, juga terdapat "Wish Tree" berupa sebatang pohon tempat pengunjung menggantung harapan-harapan mereka yang ditulis di sebuah kertas. Seperti yang diberitakan sebelumnya, Green Festival 2009 menggelar beberapa zona lingkungan seperti zona pohon, air, kendaraan, listrik, dan sampah.

Green Festival merupakan acara kampanye lingkungan yang digelar Green Initiative Forum di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta, 5-6 Desember dengan tujuan menyebarkan sekaligus menyadarkan masyarakat bahaya pemanasan global.

GREEN FESTIVAL

INDONESIA — Apa itu perubahan iklim? Sebuah pernyataan mengklaim bahwa isu tersebut amat elitis. Pengertian tentang iklim saja masih banyak dikelirukan dengan cuaca. Apalagi istilah-istilah seperti ”emisi” dan ”gas rumah kaca”. Yang terakhir sering dikelirukan dengan ”bangunan dengan jendela kaca”. Pernyataan itu pernah keluar dari seorang pejabat yang mengurus lingkungan dan dari seorang guru Biologi. Mengenaskan...?

Gas rumah kaca—istilah yang dilekatkan pada sejumlah gas yang berfungsi seperti ”rumah kaca” pada istilah pertanian—yaitu rumah kecil dengan atap kaca yang berfungsi menstabilkan suhu dan cahaya matahari agar tanaman tumbuh optimal.

Gas rumah kaca dalam isu perubahan iklim adalah jenis gas tertentu (ada enam jenis) yang dikeluarkan (istilah khususnya adalah ”emisi”) ke atmosfer sebagai akibat dari berbagai aktivitas manusia. Gas rumah kaca inilah yang kemudian memerangkap suhu dari radiasi panas matahari sehingga suhu Bumi meningkat.

Semua pengetahuan itu tersaji di Green Festival 2009 secara gamblang dan dikemas sedemikian rupa sehingga pengunjung terhibur. ”Ini upaya bagus sekali untuk meningkatkan kesadaran (awareness) masyarakat soal perubahan iklim dan pemanasan global,” ujar tokoh lingkungan Erna Witoelar saat mengunjungi Green Festival pertama tahun lalu.

Awalnya adalah pengenalan, kemudian penyadaran. Selanjutnya adalah keputusan mengubah perilaku untuk menghambat laju pemanasan global. Perilaku setiap individu pun perlu disesuaikan untuk beradaptasi dengan kondisi alam yang sudah berubah. Semua itu bisa didapat pengunjung pada Green Festival hari Sabtu dan Minggu ini (5-6 Desember 2009).

Mantan Wakil Presiden AS Al Gore, peraih Nobel Perdamaian 2008, di Melbourne, Australia, beberapa waktu lalu saat pelatihan presenter perubahan iklim, mengatakan, ”Saya bermimpi semua orang di dunia paham perubahan iklim sehingga pemerintah dan politisi bisa ditekan oleh masyarakatnya untuk mengambil keputusan tepat guna menghentikan laju pemanasan global.”

pengolahan sampah

JAKARTA, — Menghilangkan tumpukan sampah dengan membakarnya bukanlah cara yang tepat. Jika sampah dibakar di bawah suhu 600 derajat celsius, pembakarannya dapat menghasilkan senyawa dioksin dan furan yang menyebabkan kanker. Namun, tumpukan sampah jika dibiarkan juga dapat menghasilkan gas metana yang dua kali lebih berbahaya dari karbon dioksida. Satu ton tumpukan sampah padat dapat menghasilkan 62 meter kubik gas metana. Lantas apa cara yang tepat mengatasi sampah?

Dalam petunjuk yang tertera di papan hijau zona sampah Green Festival 2009 di Parkir Timur Senayan, Minggu (6/12), sampah bisa diatasi menggunakan rumus 5R yakni, reduce, reuse, recycle, replace, dan rethink. Dengan reduce atau mengurangi sampah, kita turut mengurangi kemungkinan banjir. Dengan reuse atau menggunakan kembali barang-barang seperti menggunakan kembali kantong belanjaan, hal itu dapat memperpanjang masa pakai sampah.

Selanjutnya, lakukan recycle atau mendaur ulang sampah untuk dijadikan barang baru seperti daur ulang kertas atau plastik, atau memanfaatkan plastik kemasan deterjen sebagai pot tanaman. Kemudian, replace, yaitu mulai mengganti barang sekali pakai dan barang yang tidak ramah lingkungan dengan barang yang dapat didaur ulang. Misalnya mengganti sendok plastik dengan sendok aluminium. Terakhir, lakukan rethink, yakni memikirkan kembali keputusan kita dalam membeli atau menggunakan barang. Pada saat berbelanja, sebaiknya memilih barang yang tidak boros kemasan dan ramah lingkungan seperti barang yang dikemas karton.

Selain informasi mengenai 5R, masih banyak informasi lain seperti jenis-jenis kompos dan cara pengelolaan sampah kering dan basah di zona sampah Green Festival 2009. Seperti yang diberitakan sebelumnya, Green Festival 2009 diselenggarakan oleh Green Initiative Forum di Parkir Timur Senayan Jakarta, 5-6 Desember.

KOPENHAGEN, - Konferensi Perubahan Iklim PBB 2009 dibuka resmi di tengah suhu kota Kopenhagen, Denmark, yang hampir 0 derajat. Di hadapan delegasi dari 192 negara, Direktur Eksekutif UNFCCC Yvo de Boer membuka pidatonya dengan kisah anak laki-laki Nyi Lay.

Anak laki-laki berusia 6 tahun itu harus kehilangan ayah, ibu, dan saudaranya akibat badai tropis. Kenaikan suhu global, yang saat ini sudah terjadi, di antaranya meningkatkan terjadinya badai tropis dengan bahaya lebih besar. Jutaan jiwa di kawasan pesisir pantai berada dalam bahaya akibat badai tropis ataupun kenaikan muka laut, seiring dengan melelehnya gunung es di kawasan kutub.

”Konferensi bisa disebut sukses hanya bila ada kesepakatan signifikan dan tindakan segera, sesaat setelah penutupan,” kata Yvo, Senin (7/12) di Kopenhagen, saat pembukaan. Sebelum pembukaan sejumlah LSM internasional menggelar spanduk mengingatkan pentingnya mendahulukan kepentingan dunia di atas kepentingan politik sesaat.

Seusai pembukaan aliansi organisasi masyarakat Tcktcktck menyerahkan petisi yang ditandatangani 10 juta orang. Mereka berseru kepada para pemimpin dunia untuk mewujudkan kesepakatan iklim yang adil, ambisius, dan mengikat.

Perdebatan panas

Perdana Menteri Denmark Lars Lokke Rasmussen menyatakan bahwa para delegasi memiliki beberapa perbedaan cara pandang terhadap kerangka perjanjian. Dua pekan mendatang akan diisi perdebatan panas delegasi.

Ia mengajak para delegasi mampu melewati hari-hari itu dan mencapai hasil yang bisa diterima semua pihak sekaligus kuat dan ambisius. ”Sebuah perjanjian yang efektif dan operasional,” kata dia.

Menurut Yvo, setidaknya dibutuhkan dana sebesar 10 miliar dollar AS sebagai awal pendanaan mitigasi, adaptasi, alih teknologi, dan pembangunan kapasitas di negara-negara berkembang. Kemauan politik harus dapat diterjemahkan dalam persoalan riil di atas.

Bencana mengancam

Ketua Panel Ahli Antarnegara untuk Perubahan Iklim (IPCC) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri menyebutkan, data ilmiah yang dikaji ribuan ahli dari seluruh dunia menemukan fakta, kenaikan suhu global telah menyebabkan kenaikan muka laut 17 sentimeter saat ini akibat kenaikan suhu rata-rata global 0,74 derajat celsius.

Artinya, negara-negara seperti Banglades dan negara pulau-pulau kecil dengan daratan 1-2 meter di atas permukaan laut berada dalam ancaman terendam. Semua bahaya ini disebabkan pola pembangunan yang rakus emisi sejak era kelahiran industri.

Pachauri secara khusus memuji Denmark sebagai laboratorium mitigasi perubahan iklim. Sejak dikenalkan pertama kali tahun 1980 lalu, turbin angin Denmark menghasilkan listrik 100 kali lipat.

Angka penjualan industri manufaktur turbin angin Denmark terus naik. Hal itu menunjukkan manfaat langsung ekonomi dari pembangunan ramah lingkungan rendah emisi.

Konferensi dua pekan ini akan dihadiri 110 kepala negara dan kepala pemerintahan, termasuk Presiden Barack Obama, yang tiga hari lalu mengubah jadwal kedatangannya menjadi tepat saat negosiasi diperkirakan kritis, 18 Desember, bersamaan dengan kehadiran Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

”Kehadiran mereka merefleksikan determinasi politis untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim. Juga mewakili peluang amat besar yang jangan sampai terlewat,” kata Lars Lokke Rasmussen. Kedatangan ratusan kepala negara dan pemimpin pemerintahan diharapkan menghasilkan kesepakatan yang efektif.

Hingga kini negosiasi masih dibayang-bayangi kebuntuan terkait komitmen negara maju mengenai jumlah emisi yang akan diturunkan.

Kelompok organisasi nonpemerintah yang mengamati negosiasi iklim menyebutkan, negara maju harus menurunkan emisinya sebesar 40 persen pada tahun 2020 dari level emisi tahun 1990. Mereka juga harus menyiapkan pendanaan mitigasi dan adaptasi perubahan iklim sebesar 195 miliar dollar AS pada tahun 2020.

Sementara itu, emisi dari perusakan hutan dan degradasi lahan dapat ditekan menjadi 0 persen pada tahun 2020 dengan bantuan pendanaan 35 miliar dollar AS. Persoalan pendanaan ini pula yang diperkirakan akan memakan waktu debat.

mobil listrik

KOPENHAGEN, – Denmark berniat menjadi negara dengan tingkat emisi karbon netral pada tahun 2050 mendatang. Visi ini bukan sembarang visi. Pemerintahan dibawah kepemimpinan Lars Lokke Rasmussen itu sudah menyiapkan segala perangkat untuk mendukung terwujudnya impian itu. Salah satunya menyosialisasikan penggunaan mobil bertenaga listrik. Di sela-sela pelaksanaan Konferensi PBB tentang perubahan iklim di Kopenhagen, Kompas.com bersama Jesper, seorang karyawan salah satu produsen mobil sempat mengunjungi Danish Design Centre, di pusat kota Kopenhagen.

Perusahaan tempat Jesper bekerja menyediakan layanan gratis bagi para tamu COP15 untuk merasakan berkendara dengan mobil bertenaga listrik di seputar kota Kopenhagen. Saat ini, menurut dia, masyarakat Denmark menunjukkan antusiasme tinggi terhadap penggunaan mobil ramah lingkungan ini. Hanya saja, mobil yang digunakannya untuk berkeliling kali ini, masih dalam tahap sosialisasi dan akan dipasarkan di Denmark pada tahun 2011 mendatang. Saat ini, terang Jesper, ada satu model mobil bertenaga listrik yang telah digunakan di Denmark. “Buddy car”, begitu sebutannya. Mobil ini hanya muat untuk dua orang yaitu supir dan satu penumpang lainnya.

“Pemerintah mengeluarkan kebijakan berupa layanan eksklusif bagi pengguna mobil listrik. Salah satunya, parkir gratis,” terang Jesper, Selasa (8/12/2009), saat mengantarkan ke Danish Design Centre, Kopenhagen.

Menurutnya, keistimewaan-keistimewaan ini salah satunya untuk mempersuasi warga Denmark agar mau menggunakan mobil tersebut. Sedikit berpromosi, Jesper mengatakan, mobil yang tengah disosialisasikan perusahaannya bermuatan lebih banyak, empat orang dan terlihat seperti mobil pada umumnya. Berbeda dengan “Buddy Car” yang terlihat berbeda.

“Anda bisa merasakan kan, mobil ini berjalan seperti mobil normal dan tanpa suara. Saat ini sudah banyak masyarakat Denmark yang menyatakan ketertarikannya dengan mobil ini. Kalau lebih banyak yang menggunakan mobil seperti ini, maka saya yakin kondisi lingkungan akan semakin baik” ujarnya.

Jesper kemudian menjelaskan, mobil bertenaga listrik akan lebih hemat penggunaannya untuk perjalanan dalam kota. Untuk kecepatan 120 km per jam, tenaga listrik akan bertahan selama 4 jam. Nah, bagaimana dengan sistem pengisian tenaga listriknya? “Sama seperti Anda menge-charge handphone,” kata Jesper.

Oleh karena itu, dalam waktu dua tahun ini tengah disiapkan infrastruktur dan layanan yang akan melengkapi kebutuhan para pengguna mobil listrik. Di Danish Design Centre, juga dipamerkan sebuah prototype mobil listrik. Disini dijelaskan, mengapa penggunaan energi listrik jauh lebih berkualitas dibandingkan energi lainnya. Hal ini merupakan salah satu dukungan dari perusahaan-perusahaan di Denmark untuk mewujudkan program “Neutral Carbon Country” dari pemerintahan negara Skandinavia itu.

JAKARTA, gempa ci anjur/jawa barat, - Lokasi longsor di Desa Cikangkareng, Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Cianjur, Jawa Barat, akibat terjangan gempa bumi, Rabu (2/9), dapat dipantau oleh satelit ALOS-AVNIR2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite-Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2) milik Jepang.

Data citra satelit tersebut diambil Jumat (4/9) kemudian dikirim oleh JAXA Sentinel Asia—Asian Disaster Reduction Center ke Pusat Pengembangan Pemanfaatan dan Teknologi Penginderaan Jauh Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (Lapan) berdasarkan permintaan lembaga riset ini. ”Data itu kami olah dan analisis dengan membandingkan kondisi lokasi gempa pada citra sebelum dan sesudah gempa,” .

Menurutnya, citra satelit beresolusi 10 meter ini menunjukkan kawasan longsor terlihat pada kawasan hampir sepanjang 1 kilometer. Citra satelit ALOS mulai dimanfaatkan Lapan tahun 2006. Kelebihannya dibandingkan dengan satelit lain adalah pada penggunaan dua sistem sekaligus, yaitu optik dan radar. Selain itu, sensornya dapat diarahkan untuk merekam gambar lokasi tertentu. ”Dalam satu minggu minimal satu kali satelit ini melewati Indonesia,”.

Lembang Fault

Lembang Fault in the north of Bandung recently become the center of attention and study of science, both by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), and the Meteorological Agency, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) Bandung. Fault is believed to be active this will save a huge earthquake threat.

Eko Yulianto, researchers from Paleoseismologi Geoteknologi LIPI Research Center, found in his office, Tuesday (6 / 10), said that whether or not active Lembang Fault current no longer debated.

"Based on research results LIPI, this fault was a record period of movement (earthquake) with a range of 400-700 years. In the sediment samples of the former swamp land around the location, it is known that at least seven layers of soil. That is, at least once happened seven movement time, "he said.

With a length of Lembang Fault spans 22 kilometers, Eko said that the potential could reach 6.7 earthquake Ritcher scale. "That is the worst scenario, if there is movement in unison," he said.

Earthquake surface with this much power, he said, would be unusual for the surrounding area. He even predicted, the impact of the quake was later able to match the earthquake happened in Yogyakarta, May 2006, which killed thousands of people.

The problem is, the soil conditions in Bandung is not much different in the Yogyakarta, which is the land of young sediments of ancient lakes used. "This soil layer has not really consolidated so that the effect is like porridge in the bowl when shaken. Uncangannya stopped, but the shock is still going on," said alumnus of Geology Institute of Technology Bandung.

World class

For that, just by a small force such as occurs in DIY, shallow earthquakes that occur can cause tremendous damage effects. In fact, quoting a statement from Brian Atwater, paleotsunami renowned researchers from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a co-worker in a series of research, Lembang Fault hazards including world-class category.

"Because of this fracture was located near the city area is very dense. It is rare in the world," he said. According to him, the threat potential of Lembang Fault earthquake is conveyed is not to make people nervous in Bandung.

"Instead, we want to remind residents to be prepared and alert. However, information is a form of early warning the earliest," he said.

The phenomenon of El Nino or hot Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific Ocean from late May menggejala and tends to strengthen this month. However, seeing patterns and the location of "hot tub"-area of sea surface warming trend is a new version of the so-called El Nino El Nino Modoki.

This was revealed from the weather experts Inventory Technology Agency of Natural Resources Assessment and Application of Technology (TISDA-BPPT), Fadli Shamsuddin, Friday (21 / 8), via SMS. "There is a tendency towards anomalous El Nino Modoki. To ensure that, should see the last condition, "he said.

El Nino is usually marked the Sea Surface Temperature anomalies in the equatorial region in the Pacific Ocean is called the hot pool. This resulted in high moisture supply in the area of Peru, which causes a lot of rain in the area, contrary drought in parts of Asia, especially Indonesia.

In contrast to El Nino, the emergence of Modoki, Japanese language, which means "similar but different", shown by the existence of "hot tub" which concentrated only in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The eastern and western Pacific cool.

This condition causes the low supply of water vapor or the formation of rain clouds in Peru and in eastern Indonesia. So far the research undertaken by researchers of Marine Research Agency of Japan (JAMSTEC), parts of Indonesia has not much studied. This phenomenon was also recently published in 2004 by JAMSTEC researcher, said Fadli, who won his doctorate in Japan.

El Nino Modoki Research also conducted research of the Georgia Institute of Technology. "Typically, El Nino events cause the decrease of the storm in the Atlantic. However, this new type increased the storm, "said Peter Webster, professor at Georgia Tech's School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences.

According to Webster's research that appeared in the journal Science last July edition, El Nino Modoki more predictable compared to El Nino. El Nino turned into a natural oscillation Modoki by El Nino or El Nino is a response to atmospheric menghangatnya or because of La Nina change the structure of El Nino.

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Large-scale earthquake

Large-scale earthquake will knock down anything on earth that unsound and fragile. This phenomenon is not just demolish the building, but also makes landslides, broke, and ambles. Beyond that, an earthquake of the coast is also a potential cause tsunamis. That is a series of threats to the population in the earthquake-prone areas.

As long as the earth rotates, the movement of plates covering the earth and float on the magma will never stop. Antarlempeng collision or the crust is what causes earthquakes continue to occur after another all over the world.

When one location in the boundary layer of rocks collapsed due to the earth's crust holding the pressure plate merapuh, rocks that would seek a new stable position. During this process will be a series of aftershocks, the main pascagempa. This can result in cracked buildings and fragile finally collapsed.

For earthquakes in Padang, 30 September, hack earthquake even hundreds of times before the incident. Since the earthquake in Aceh, December 26, 2004, Padang and surrounding areas are often hit by earthquakes scale 4 to 6 on the Richter scale. "The numbers in the hundreds," said Sujabar, officials at the National Earthquake Center Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics.

Shocks in a long time has weakened gradually building structures that are not designed to withstand earthquakes, among others, indicated by the wall fractures. Appeal to the public to do to strengthen buildings vulnerable to earthquakes has been done. "But, unfortunately this is ignored because they are considered a big earthquake would not come," said Febrin A Ismail, Coordinator of the Expert Group of the Tsunami Alert (Kogami) West Sumatra.

Avalanche and ambles

Other threats lurk after the earthquake is a landslide and ambles. This happened in the hills because the reduction in forest cover.

The decline of forest areas in the region will open up the potential slope and landslide eroded as rain. This condition starts during the dry season. As a result of exposure to intense sunlight, land surface bond "naked" would be weakened and stretched.

Avalanches generally occur in the transition from dry to rainy season, especially in the area of land type easy go. As the rain washed constantly, a weakened bond would be broken because the burden of water in the pores. Bond rupture is characterized by avalanches of land. The threat of landslides to be greater when the slope of the fragile perch building, especially when rocked by an earthquake.

Longsornya slopes in some areas in West Sumatra pascagempa, September 30, among others, triggered by these conditions. It is also common in Cianjur, West Java, September 2, 2009.

Seeing the trend merambahnya residential area to the hills caused by rising populations in earthquake-prone areas, in future events such as landslides during the earthquake in Cianjur, Solok and Padang will happen also in other areas prone slopes and densely populated quake.

In addition to landslides, amblesnya surface can also occur in areas hit by the earthquake. As a result of the earthquake, the source of underground water mixed to happen likuifaksi or pelembekan land. Land that had high loading and hollow will ambles.

Domino effect

Domino effect could occur in kegempaan and fault segments adjacent to the collapsed rocks are the source of the earthquake. Conditions that, among other things pascagempa Padang earthquake followed the next day of Jambi, which is sourced from Semangko fault.

"We kegempaan Mentawai segment also require attention after the earthquake in Padang late last month," says Danny Hilman, geologists from the Central Research Geoteknologi Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

Because the earthquake source is located on the west bank, the Mentawai segment called megathrust, which stretched from the island of Siberut island until Pagai. LIPI research shows the Mentawai Islands, the year 1650 an earthquake had occurred on SR 8 in Siberut Island. Years 1797 and 1883 as re-scale earthquake in the area appeared.

Second quake-based research and sedimentary coral-caused tsunami in Padang as high as 10 meters. The propagation modeling 8,7-8,9 tsunamis by earthquakes in 1797 and SR 1833, which created a tsunami expert ITB, Hamzah Latief, the wave will reach the coast of Padang in 30 minutes with a height of nearly 5 meters.

Mentawai segment is part of the system in western Sumatra kegempaan which is divided into four main segments (Simelue, Nias, Mentawai, Enggano). 10 years since the last earthquake in this segment "pounding".

"The emergence of the earthquake last September that the Mentawai segment may disturb the sleep, to cause a tsunami," says Danny.

Earthquakes in the western islands of Sumatra that repetition period of about 200-300 years. This penunjaman effects of the pressing plate edge Indoaustralia Eurasian plate beneath the western part of fault Semangko up to the islands off the coast of Sumatra. The speed of the pressure plate 6 to 7 centimeters per year.

Rocks at the end plate at a time will be bounced for not being able longer stand the pressure. This is marked by a large earthquake, a shift position in the segment's mainland and the island from the mainland menjauhnya a few meters from its original position. Pascagempa year 2004, the islands off the coast of Banda Aceh 1-3 meters away.

In addition to natural phenomena that accompany large earthquakes, the impact is the threat of disease, food shortages, as well as psychological trauma victims who lost property and family.

Because of that, Danny reminds all parties in the Valley must be vigilant and to anticipate potentially facing a tsunami earthquake recurrence.

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Earthquake Prediction

The phenomenon of the earthquake has occurred since the Earth's surface is formed. To understand it, developed seismology, part of earth science. However, until now the earthquake has not also be expected that always threatens the life on it. Research continues to run.

Beginning last week came the rumors will be an earthquake measuring 8.5 on the Richter scale on Saturday, October 24, 2009. Shock mentioned leads to Jakarta.

News that mentioned the Meteorological Agency, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) had been denied the Head BMKG, October 19. This issue has no clear scientific basis for tectonic earthquakes can not be scientifically predicted.

The fact that Jakarta on "safe" course. Although the earthquake occurred in the morning (at 10:09 GMT), the scale is only 5.1 SR and only slightly shook Sukabumi.

Then there was another earthquake in the evening (21:40 GMT) in the Banda Sea. Relatively strong earthquake (7.3 SR) with a center at a distance of 209 kilometers northwest of Saumlaki, Maluku. Because of the earthquake center, convulsions was up to Ambon and Merauke.

So far, the science of human-controlled Terrestrial new limited earthquake records, both the time, location, and intensity. There are currently no earthquake prediction techniques that are categorized as developed and tested scientifically.

However, efforts in that direction longer continue to do. One of the monitoring technique using electromagnetic waves (EM) that emanated from the bowels of the Earth. This research has been pioneered Varotsos, geophysical experts from the University of Athens, Greece, in 1884.

According to him, this technique has good prospects to predict earthquakes because the level of success in predicting the earthquake when it has reached 63 percent.

Seeing this prospect, some developed countries, including Japan and Taiwan, which is often shaken by earthquakes, such as Indonesia, recently intensified to the development of this technique, not only to observe the distribution of EM in the Earth's lithosphere layer, but also in the atmosphere to the ionosphere.

EM waves are used to indicate the occurrence of an earthquake because of plate movement and the acceleration of the magma rock formations due to changes in the Earth's stomach causing electromagnetic wave surge. These anomalies appear before the earthquake happened.

Digging science earthquake monitoring of the two countries, Djedi S Widarto, researchers from the Center for Research Geoteknologi Indonesian Institute of Sciences, recently revealed the results of his research in Liwa, an area on the west coast of Lampung, Bengkulu border which was struck by massive earthquake a few years ago.

Sign of the emergence of tectonic earthquake can be seen two to five days before the incident, indicated the existence of electromagnetic wave anomalies in the Earth's surface. "There is an electromagnetic surge around 5 milivolt before the big earthquake in the area," he explained. This deviation observed even in the ionosphere layers that are 300 to 400 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

"With the development of sensors and instrumentation techniques, monitoring of electromagnetic anomalies in the next 5-10 years can be used as a parameter to predict tectonic earthquake," said Djedi, geophysics doctorate from Kyoto University.

As a result of plate movement, cracks occur which affect the gravity and magnetic minerals in the Earth so that the force destabilizing the electromagnetic field. "This disturbance could get a radius of 400 kilometers above Earth's surface, the layer of the ionosphere," said Djedi, who completed the research at the Institute of Space Science National Central University, Taiwan.

Meanwhile, researchers from Lapan, Sarmoko Saroso, who conducted the study of electromagnetic anomalies at the same institute, obtained the data of EM anomalies when an earthquake happens in Aceh, 26 December 2004. The data is recorded at the same time in the four-station global positioning system (GPS), which is in Medan, Singapore, Myanmar, and India.

Pascagempa Aceh, the experts from both countries agreed to establish cooperation further research, involving research institutions in Indonesia, LIPI and the Institute of Space and Aviation Agency.

Electromagnetic measurements made using GPS network, in addition to the magnetometer instrument, the sensor electrodes geolistrik, and binoculars corona. This system is equipped with tools for data telemetry in real time. Research in Liwa in 2005 that electromagnetic waves to detect spikes as an indication of magnitude 5.2 tectonic earthquake on SR 12 days before the incident.

Asperitas

In addition to electromagnetic wave measurement techniques, the Japanese began researching asperitas (asperity), the level of surface roughness on the subduction zone plate with seismograph system. "By knowing the surface roughness, can be known to the deceleration motion until penunjaman 'locked' and then off or menggelosor," said Eko Yulianto, who won a doctoral geology from the University of Hokkaido, Japan.

Yoshiko Yamanaka and Masayuki Kikuchi of the Earthquake Research Institute University of Tokyo examined the characteristics of surface roughness (asperity) plates, with learning resources in the area kegempaan or antarlempeng subduction zone off the coast of Tohoku District, northeastern Japan.

The study, published in 2003 is based on regional seismic data for more than 70 years ago. They found three categories of distribution patterns in the Tohoku asperitas plates, are distinguished at the level of roughness and the resulting kegempaan.

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Indonesia berpotensi mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca sebesar 60 persen hingga tahun 2030 dengan menggabungkan kebijakan lingkungan hidup yang tepat dan dukungan internasional.

Perubahan kebijakan dan kelembagaan di sektor kehutanan, pembangkit listrik, transportasi, dan pengelolaan lahan gambut merupakan peluang bagi Indonesia untuk beralih ke jalur ekonomi yang lebih berkelanjutan.

Demikian paparan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Ketua Harian Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim (DNPI) Rachmat Witoelar kepada para wartawan, Kamis (27/8) di Jakarta. Data ini merupakan hasil kajian sementara DNPI tahun ini.

"Indonesia mengakui adanya ancaman yang dihadapi semua bangsa dari pemanasan global, dan akan mengupayakan pengurangan emisi dalam negeri sepanjang hal tersebut sesuai dengan tujuan pembangunan nasional," ujar Rachmat.

Data DNPI menunjukkan, jumlah emisi gas rumah kaca Indonesia pada 2005 mencapai 2,3 giga ton. Emisi ini akan meningkat sebesar 3,6 giga ton pada 2030 apabila tidak terdapat perubahan dalam cari pengelolaan di beberapa sektor.

Indonesia sendiri, salah satunya, akan fokus pada sektor kehutanan, pertanian, transportasi, bangunan, dan semen. Dari sektor ini, Indonesia berpeluang mengurangi gas rumah kaca sebesar 2,3 giga ton pada 2030.

Seperti diketahui, lahan gambut dan kehutanan merupakan sumber terbesar emisi gas rumah kaca di Indonesia, yaitu mencapai 45 persen. Untuk menekan emisi tersebut, Indonesia akan merehabilitasi lahan gambut yang rusak.

"Selain itu, Indonesia akan secara aktif memengaruhi negosiasi internasional tentang emisi gas, mengembangkan strategi perubahan iklim di dalam negeri yang handal, serta meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat akan risiko dan peluang perubahan iklim,"


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Mirinae tropical storm

Mirinae typhoon hit, 20 People Killed

Mirinae tropical storm moves toward Vietnam, Sunday (1 / 11), after charging the Philippines killed 20 people.

Mirinae typhoon was weakening, Sunday, as they move toward the South China Sea. The storm was expected to hit Vietnam's coast, Monday afternoon.

Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyễn Tấn Dũng ordered residents in areas threatened by the storm to evacuate immediately. The fishermen in the South China Sea are also asked to seek refuge.

Philippines and Vietnam had saju recover from Hurricane Ketsana hack. This storm caused the Philippine capital, Manila, in the worst floods in actions 40 years, killing 160 people in Vietnam at the end of September 2009.

Ketsana and two other storms and killed about 900 people in the Philippines. Around 87,000 were evacuated as the storm hit Mirinae turn. Philippine officials say 20 people were killed victims mostly by drowning, in six provinces.

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La Nina and el nino
La Nina phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean waters that bring the rain began to weaken. We have observed that the opportunity about 50 percent and potentially continue to decline in the near future so that the dry season is estimated to occur.

"This year still has not observed the energy balance in the year after El Nino occurred in 2006 which resulted in the long dry season,".

the period 2006 to 2009 allows started happening when the energy balance of the El Nino to La Nina changes.

However, the condition of the current La Nina will continue to weaken. However, it still remains to be determined through monitoring the waters of the Pacific Ocean until mid 2009.

El Nino was a kid

Head of Public Meteorological Information subfields of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) Ribudianto Kukuh said, although the potential for 50 percent of La Nina will continue to decline, El Nino's own estimates are still too small.

"We have estimated the El Nino is still approximately 30 percent,"

Condition of waters and islands in the western Pacific Ocean is still relatively warm. However, the same thing started happening also in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

In the middle of Pacific Ocean waters, which would tend to cool move to the west. When the waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west of the cold, La Nina is weakening and the dry season occurs.

"Problems in the 2009 dry season will be prolonged worry. This would still require constant monitoring in the Pacific,".

UNFCCC in Denmark

JAKARTA, - Once in Bali, UN agencies convention on climate change (UNFCCC or the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) will be re-held in Copenhagen, Danish, Sunday (13/12/09).

The conference was first held in 1992 that aims to urge all states concerned to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that are considered harmless Earth's climate. This year, the meeting will make proposals to use carbon payments to protect forests in the world.

The conference titled "Forest Day 3" is dedicated to discussing the role of forests in climate change, mitigation and adaptation to change, and will focus on "Forest Biodiversity and Climate Change."

The negotiators will also discuss a global framework for REDD (reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and forest degradation defortasi). Thus countries that reduce their deforestation rates will get credit for reduced gas emissions. Credits would then be sold on the international carbon market or will be channeled into an international fund.

In a question and answer session at a media briefing at the Hotel Intercontinental, Tuesday (25 / 8) morning, Dr Agus Purnomo, representing the government as Executive Secretary National Council on Climate Change, explains, indigenous forest communities in Indonesia do not have different perceptions with developed countries and developing the gas emissions that produce the most in the world such as China.

"Society and the village is a large portion, so from their government that has a big responsibility as indigenous forest communities will be given an incentive of about 70 percent," said Dr. Masripatin Nur, leader of the REDD team from the Department of Forestry.

Conference on Environment-Friendly Products
JAKARTA, Indones - Indonesia will host the implementation of Eco-Products International Fair (EPIF) 2010 which will take place in March 2010 in Jakarta.

"EPIF 2010 includes 2 main activities of the international conference environmentally friendly products and international exhibitions environmentally friendly products," explained Vice-Chairman of Chamber of Commerce, Rahmat Gobel.

Grace revealed that after discussing the preparation of the activity with Plt Coordinating Minister for Economy Sri Mulyani Indrawati said here on Monday.

The activity was a collaboration of various parties including the Chamber of Commerce, the Asian Productivity Organization (APO), and National Productivity Organization (NPO) Indonesia.

"Visitors are expected from within and outside the country with the number more than 300,000 people. From outside the country will come from 20 countries around Asia Pacific," he said.

According to him, Indonesia has an interest in it is penyelengaraan activities to support efforts to increase economic growth supported by increased productivity.

"In the meantime the exhibition we will popularize and market environmentally sound products," he said.

EPIF an international exhibition of environmental friendly products in Asia which demonstrated advances in technology, goods and environmental services that will improve productivity and sustainable competition, also the event raise public awareness of goods and environmental services, and build business networks.

Organization in Jakarta is organizing the 6th after the first one in Kuala Lumpur (2004), both in Bangkok (2005), third in Singapore (2006), fourth in Hanoi (2008), and fifth in Manila in 2009

WONOSARI, INDONESIA-Biogas from human waste continue to be developed in the area of Gunung Kidul Regency. After previously installing biogas installation on the banks of the processing time Besole, Ministry of Environment to build a similar installation in Pondok Pesantren Darul Quran.

Development of biogas installations in potentially creating a boarding school or pesantren ekopesantren environmental perspective.

Chairman of the Pondok Pesantren Darul Quran Masduki Haris Ahmad said he would pass on this waste processing technology to other boarding schools in ekopesantren forum to be held in Yogyakarta, Wednesday (4 / 11). "Processing of waste into biogas to create boarding schools or environmentally friendly ekopesantren," said Haris, Sunday (1 / 11).

Waste treatment technology that the new human waste last month installed at the Pondok Pesantren Darul Quran was adopted from Germany via Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association. By processing human waste, pesantrens managers can save spending money for the purchase of fuel to Rp 2.5 million per month.

Liquid waste from the processing of biogas installations can also be used for agriculture. Of the land area of 1500 square meters, the students able to harvest various vegetables with a trading value up to USD 1.6 million per month. "The economic profit only side effect. The most important waste is no longer a problem, but rather helpful," added Harris.

Students at the Pondok Pesantren Darul Quran, Muhtasin, admitted that initially he and about 400 other students to take advantage keck biogas from human waste. He and his colleagues began to get used to using biogas as a taste of different cuisines that are not using other types of fuel.

Before getting to know the processing of biogas, waste from Islamic boarding schools just thrown into the paddy field area that pollute the environment. Through processing of the waste, the students are also invited to maintain environmental sustainability. In the future, hoping pesantrens manager can utilize the waste processed human waste as fertilizer raw materials.

Since December, residents in the outskirts of Besole Kali, Gunung Kidul, also has been using gas from human waste as fuel. Government fix the toilet residents crowded living on the edge of time and accommodate all the dirt from seven houses. Gas from the new waste could be used by 13 people from two families.

NEW YORK, - UN summit ended a day of climate change and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged world leaders to act swiftly to ensure success in the upcoming UN conference on climate in Copenhagen, December.

"I was heartened to hear that more and more leaders are ready to act outside the national perspective to join the global leadership," said UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon told world leaders at the close of the hearing.

"You have been taking action to stay involved until an agreement was signed in Copenhagen. And you have agreed to give guidance to the negotiators to work towards an ambitious agreement, effective, and fair in Copenhagen," Ban said.

Nearly 100 heads of state and government participating in the high-level meetings, the largest gathering of world leaders to discuss climate change.

By discussing these issues, the Secretary General hopes to move the political will and momentum necessary to achieve an ambitious agreement in Copenhagen conference.

Climate change is a matter of economics and geopolitics of the 21st century. But Ban, who visited the Arctic region earlier this month and witnessed the impact of climate change quickly, deliver regrets about the negotiations and urged leaders to look far to meet the needs of their people.

UN Secretary General argue that tackling global warming was done with a very high ransom. "They're wrong. The truth is the opposite. We will not be able to pay if we do not act now," Ban said.

Success in Copenhagen, Danish, would require all countries to work in tandem to limit the global temperature rise, and encourage the world's ability to handle changes that occur through climate change.

Consensus on greenhouse gas reduction to be debates, the theme becomes most hotly discussed topics in a variety meeting.Many non-governmental organizations in environmental and social fields, which makes the interests of consensus include the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as one of the criteria for certification. However, on the other side of palm oil producers rate, still takes a lot of time entering a consensus to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in one particular certification.in consensus criteria of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in the discussion. D debate but has not yet been able to make decisions, whether the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions become one of the criteria for certification or not the businessman.With can not produce a consensus decision-related reductions of greenhouse gas emissions as one of the criteria for certification. "I understand, when the world around us also seemed paralyzed and Unable to take the courageous (related reduction in greenhouse gas emissions), we also lose the opportunity to be bold and visionary.

Social and Environmental Risks for greenhouse gas emissions could be because of the oil palm plantations in between, it was aroused from the production process and the opening of new land. The production process in the form of nitrogen fertilizer use until the provision of chemicals on plants that resulted in the release of greenhouse gases. Meanwhile, greenhouse gas emissions from new land clearing Arise as a result, changes to the forest as a carbon catcher into palm oil plantations or palm garden lainnya.Because only able to capture carbon largest 40 tons for 25 years distant when compared with the forest. "Compare this with the forest is not damaged, which can capture approximately 275 tonnes of carbon up to 300 tons,".

Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as part of a strategy to reduce global warming, the opening of new plantations in the forest as a catcher change carbon, for example, some countries Indonesia is still very possible. On the other hand, in other countries there is no longer possible to open land in the forest or forest change.
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that consensus should be defined as one of the certification criteria for palm entrepreneurs. desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations, is not only the responsibility of the oil business, but it was only a small part in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. "This will be the responsibility of all parties".

if this (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) are due to only oil entrepreneurs wrong, because, actually produces the largest contributor to greenhouse gases is the developed countries, with the factories, tall buildings that use glass, because most of the entrepreneurs oil found in developing countries and still have enough land or forest as absorbent carbon monoxide. therefore, greenhouse gases must be a shared responsibility and he should no agreement among a countries.

Consensus on greenhouse gas reduction to be debates, the theme becomes most hotly discussed topics in a variety meeting.Many non-governmental organizations in environmental and social fields, which makes the interests of consensus include the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as one of the criteria for certification. However, on the other side of palm oil producers rate, still takes a lot of time entering a consensus to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in one particular certification.a la consensus criteria of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in the discussion. D debate but has not yet been able to make decisions, whether the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions become one of the criteria for certification or not the businessman.With can not produce a consensus decision-related reductions of greenhouse gas emissions as one of the criteria for certification. "I understand, when the world around us also seemed paralyzed and unable to take the courageous (related reduction in greenhouse gas emissions), we also lose the opportunity to be bold and visionary.

Social and Environmental Risks for greenhouse gas emissions could occur due to oil palm plantations as an example, it was generated from the production process and the opening of new land. The production process in the form of nitrogen fertilizer use until the provision of chemicals on plants that resulted in the release of greenhouse gases. Meanwhile, greenhouse gas emissions from land clearing is emerging as a result of changes to the forest as a carbon catcher into palm oil plantations and palm garden etc.Because only able to capture carbon largest 40 tons for 25 years distant when compared with the forest. "Compare this with the forest is not damaged, which can capture approximately 275 tonnes of carbon up to 300 tons,".

Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as part of a strategy to reduce global warming, the opening of new plantations by changing the forests as carbon capture, for example, some countries Indonesia is still very possible. On the other hand, in other countries there is no longer possible to open land in the forest or forest change.
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions should be consensus that defined as one of the certification criteria for palm entrepreneurs. desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations, is not only the responsibility of the oil business, but it was only a small part in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. "This will be the responsibility of all parties".

if this (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) are due to only oil entrepreneurs wrong, because, actually produces the largest contributor to greenhouse gases is the developed countries, with the factories, tall buildings that use glass, because most of the entrepreneurs oil found in developing countries and still have enough land or forest as the absorbent karbon. therefore, greenhouse gases must be a shared responsibility and he should have agreement among the countries .


Indonesia - Analysis of use of nuclear technology has been used extensively for environmental maintenance in Yogyakarta. These include utilization of proper test and the level of water pollution.

Field Researcher of Chemistry and Materials Process Technology National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) Taftazani Agus said nuclear technology had been used to test for heavy metal pollution levels in some rivers in Yogyakarta, in between the River and River Elephant Code Wong. Nuclear technology is used in the study is nuclear engineering neutron activation analysis (AAN).

"We also tested the level of contamination of other small rivers flow to accommodate the waste leather and rubber industry with the same analysis technique," he said on the sidelines of the National Seminar and Workshop on Neutron Activation Analysis, held Batan and Forum AAN Indonesia (FAANI) in Yogyakarta, Tuesday (20/10).

Agus said, AAN nuclear techniques are also used in testing the feasibility of utilization of underground water in Gunung Kidul District, including the project on groundwater use in Bribin, Semanu District, Gunung Kidul. Test feasibility of nuclear technology has also been done on the underground rivers and groundwater Ngobaran in Wonosari, Gunung Kidul.

"With the RR technique, the research team succeeded in evaluating the mineral elements of Fe, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Mg with high accuracy. The results of testing showed groundwater in Gunung Kidul has a very good quality," said Agus who is also Coordinator of the Project Research Team Bribin from Batan it.

Besides in Yogyakarta, said Agus, his department has to use nuclear techniques to test the AAN levels of heavy metals on the Muria Peninsula coast, Central Java. The results further river pollution levels assigned to local government through the Environmental Impact Management Agency local area.

The results are expected to be used as a reference to determine the relevant policy measures and environmental preservation. AAN nuclear technology can also be used to check the level of pollution in the air and in the human body.

Head of Jewish Batan Hastowo said, AAN is one part of the analytical techniques of nuclear technology. AAN research in Indonesia has started since Batan stand, which is about 1960. Currently, the number of researchers who joined in AAN FAANI reached 83 people.

However, the Jews said, so far the use of AAN in Indonesia is still lagging behind developed countries. "In Europe, the AAN has been widely used in industry, namely to test consumer protection-related material," he said.

According to Jewish, this AAN technique becomes increasingly important because of the level of a very high accuracy, ie to order nanograms. AAN potential utilization of techniques to be developed in various fields, including in cases of timber theft to terrorism investigations.

* Beware! El Nino storms will Hit NTT


JAKARTA, - From May to late October in the northern waters of Indonesia has established 23 cyclones or tropical storms. The number of storms in the region until the end of November is forecasted to be at or above normal.

Coordinator of the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (TCWC-BMKG) under normal conditions, the average number of storms, which formed April-November, is 25.7 cyclones. Benchmark is based on data from 1968 to 1990.

"There's still time for another month for the formation of cyclones in northern Indonesia. The number of cyclones that formed the current dispute is only 2.7 compared with the average, ".

Since the tropical storm that emerged Kyjira and May 8, following 23 other storms. One is the storm that occurred Lupit Tuesday (27/10) at around 19:00 pm, 13:00 o'clock in the afternoon the storm had grown Mirinae.

Thursday (29/10) afternoon Mirinae moving toward the east Philippines, the position of latitude 15.8 north and 13.6 east longitude. The distance is 1700 kilometers northeast of Manado.

Mirinae moving into the Pacific Ocean does not give effect to the region is Indonesia. Currently Mirinae still in stable condition with a speed of 139 kilometers per hour.

From tropical storms formed since May, three of which led to the disaster, namely Ketsana and Parma in the Philippines and Taiwan Morakot hit.

For Indonesia, the weather disturbances that could impact on the territory of Indonesia which is close to the storm because of its vortex lines can draw air mass around the equator.

"The emergence of Parma, for example, the wind caused the branch to the north Sulawesi and Maluku,"

Therefore, the lifetime of a storm that lasted three days to two weeks continued to be monitored TCWC-BMKG, to see the potential impact for Indonesia, in the form of strong winds, heavy rain and high waves.

Tropical storms formed since sea temperatures above 27 degrees Celsius and wind speeds of more than 67 miles per hour, said Chief Meteorological Information BMKG subfields.

Currently, Indonesia entered a period of transition to the rainy season. This is indicated heavy rain and lightning and strong winds a short duration in most of Sumatra; western Borneo, southern, and eastern and some areas in northern part of Central Kalimantan.


DENPASAR,BALI - Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC), sebagai pengelola kawasan resor Nusa Dua, melakukan inisiatif pemulihan ekosistem terumbu karang di perairan pantai setempat.

"Pemulihan ekosistem terumbu karang yang telah terdegradasi itu dilakukan lewat program restorasi di lokasi terumbu karang pesisir Nusa Dua," Karena Adanya kesadaran terhadap kondisi terumbu karang.

Kegiatan restorasi sebenarnya telah diawali dengan penelitian struktur ekologi komunitas karang dan ikan karang di kawasan pesisir Nusa Dua, sejak awal Juli 2009.

Kemudian dilanjutkan kegiatan restorasi karang dengan membuat media karang buatan (artificial reef), yang didesain secara khusus menyesuaikan kondisi perairan Nusa Dua(Bali).

"Sebanyak 14 struktur artificial reef yang diberi nama Submarine Reef, telah ditempatkan di lokasi terumbu yang rusak di Nusa Dua, pada 6 Oktober lalu. Dua struktur lagi akan ditempatkan 20 Oktober, bersamaan dengan kegiatan Nusa Dua Fiesta 2009,".

Penggunaan terumbu karang buatan itu diharapkan dapat menghasilkan peningkatan kompleksitas topografi secara cepat, substrat yang stabil bagi karang dan avertebrata lainnya, tempat penyelaman dan snorkeling alternatif untuk mengalihkan tekanan dari terumbu alami.

Penempatan media Fish Agregation Device diharapkan dapat menarik keberadaan ikan, sehingga secara langsung akan memperbanyak jenis-jenis ikan yang ada di kawasan terumbu karang Nusa Dua.

"Tujuan melakukan restorasi untuk memperbaiki ekosistem terumbu karang yang telah terdegradasi. Ini adalah bentuk komitmen pada pelestarian lingkungan yang diharapkan didukung berbagai pihak, baik pengusaha, turis, nelayan, dan juga aparat keamanan pantai," komentar Direktur Utama BTDC.

Kondisi terumbu karang Nusa Dua kini di bawah ancaman serius. Hal itu disebabkan masih terjadinya praktek perikanan merusak, seperti penggunaan pottasium sianida dan pembuangan jangkar ke karang, baik oleh kapal nelayan maupun kapal wisata.

Kondisi tersebut dikhawatirkan akan semakin merusak habitat terumbu karang Nusa Dua yang tinggal sedikit itu. "Kami sangat mendukung program ini dan berharap dengan adanya restorasi karang, praktek merusak tersebut tidak terjadi lagi,".

Pihaknya telah lama memikirkan agar kawasan pesisir Nusa Dua dilindungi dengan payung hukum dan dibuatkan zonasi, sehingga keberadaan terumbu karang tetap terjaga.

Upaya perlindungan tersebut, selain untuk melindungi aset wisata bahari, juga akan dapat menjamin ketersediaan ikan bagi masyarakat pesisir Nusa Dua.

Pittsburgh, - European Union voiced deep concern about climate change negotiations, warned they were headed in the wrong direction in the weeks before the making or termination of the Copenhagen conference.

Swedish Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt, head of the European Union today, came to the U.S. city of Pittsburgh for the economic summit 20-nation group after top-level talks at the United Nations about climate change.

"We were both very worried about the situation," Reinfeldt said in a joint press conference with European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso.

"When it comes to negotiations, they actually slow down, they are not going in the right direction," said Reinfeldt. "We are very concerned that we need to speed up negotiations."

A little more than two months remaining until the conference in Copenhagen, which is intended to approve the Kyoto Protocol successor framework, which requires the agreement to reduce emissions blamed for global warming.

European Union and Japan has become a leading champion of the Kyoto Protocol, which does not make requirements on developing countries to reduce carbon emissions.

However, rich countries including the United States are united in insisting that the next agreement also requires action by developing countries.

China President Hu Jintao said on Tuesday that the largest developing country in the world was ready to slow the growth of carbon emissions sepertidi developed countries, but he did not specify numbers.

KUPANG, — Partai Hijau di Senat Australia mendukung sepenuhnya gagasan pembentukan tim pencari fakta terhadap dampak pencemaran minyak mentah di Laut Timor akibat meledaknya ladang gas Montara pada 21 Agustus 2009 lalu.

"Ini sangat luar biasa karena Australia sendiri sangat prihatin dengan kondisi yang terjadi di Laut Timor saat ini," kata pemerhati masalah Laut Timor yang juga Ketua Yayasan Peduli Timor Barat (YPTB), Ferdi Tanoni, kepada pers di Kupang, Rabu (28/10).

Ia mengemukakan ini setelah menerima surat elektronik dari Senator Hijau Australia Chris Twomey yang mengatakan bahwa Partai Hijau di Senat Australia sangat tertarik dengan gagasan pembentukan tim pencari fakta (TPF) tersebut.

Twomey dalam surat elektroniknya itu menegaskan, "Jika Pemerintah Federal Australia tidak segera mengambil langkah-langkah pencegahan, maka Partai Hijau bersama YPTB akan turun langsung ke Laut Timor untuk melihat kondisi yang sesungguhnya terjadi di sana".

"Kami merasa frustrasi dengan tanggapan Pemerintah Federal Australia tentang krisis pencemaran minyak mentah di Laut Timor ketika mereka mempertanyakan Otorita Keselamatan Maritim Australia atau Australia Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) dan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Australia pada 14 September 2009 di Senat Australia setelah melihat gambar dari satelit NASA," kata Twoney.

Tanoni yang juga mantan agen Imigrasi Kedutaan Besar Australia itu menambahkan, pihaknya juga telah menyurati pimpinan Partai Oposisi Australia (Partai Liberal) di Parlemen Australia untuk memberikan dukungannya terhadap upaya pembentukan sebuah penyelidikan penuh di Senat Australia terhadap dampak pencemaran di Laut Timor saat ini.

"Jika kita mencermati isi surat elektronik Chris Twomey, maka tergambar jelas bahwa Pemerintah Federal Australia dan AMSA terkesan menutup-nutupi kasus pencemaran minyak di Laut Timor," kata penulis buku Skandal Laut Timor Barter Ekonomi Politik Canberra-Jakarta itu.

Salah satu bukti dugaan tersebut adalah sesungguhnya Pemerintah Federal Australia telah menghubungi Otoritas Indonesia dan menyampaikan secara resmi bahwa tumpahan minyak dari ladang Montara telah memasuki wilayah perairan Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) sejauh 51 mil atau sekitar 80 km tenggara Pulau Rote.

AMSA secara resmi juga telah mengundang pejabat dari Departemen Perhubungan Indonesia mengunjungi Australia untuk melihat kondisi pencemaran di Laut Timor. Namun, hasilnya tidak pernah diumumkan ke publik hingga saat ini.

Menurut laporan jaringan YPTB dari Sydney Australia, kata Tanoni, jumlah angka kebocoran minyak mentah, gas, dan kondesat yang telah menyembur ke laut Timor setiap harinya hingga saat ini belum diketahui secara persis.

Namun, di satu sisi, pihak Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Australia dan PTTEP Australasia mengatakan hanya 64.000 liter minyak mentah yang menyembur ke Laut Timor setiap harinya.

Akan tetapi, laporan para pemerhati lingkungan di Australia yang membuat penelitian terhadap pencemaran menunjukkan bahwa tidak kurang dari 500.000 liter minyak mentah dimuntahkan setiap hari ke Laut Timor dari ladang Montara yang bocor.

Sementara itu, juru bicara Kementerian Energi Australia menyebutkan bahwa sekitar 2.000 barrel minyak, gas, dan kondensat menyembur ke Laut Timor.

"Kita mengharapkan agar Departemen Perhubungan tidak menutup-nutupi kasus pencemaran di Laut Timor saat ini karena apa pun juga alasannya telah terbukti, masyarakat di pesisir selatan Pulau Timor, Rote Ndao, dan Sabu telah merasakan dampak dari pencemaran tersebut," kata Tanoni.

Menurut dia, pemerintah harus bersikap tegas terhadap Australia sekaligus melakukan upaya-upaya antisipatif agar tumpahan minyak mentah yang saat ini sudah mencemari wilayah perairan Indonesia segera diatasi. Upaya tersebut untuk meminimalkan dampak kerugian yang dialami para nelayan dan petani rumput laut.

JAKARTA, — Forum Masyarakat Sipil Indonesia untuk Keadilan Iklim (Civil Society Forum for Climate Justice/CSF) mendesak negara-negara Annex 1 memenuhi komitmennya memotong emisi sebagaimana telah disepakati dalam Protokol Kyoto.

Perundingan Bonn Climate Change Talks yang sedang berlangsung (1-12 Juni 2009) seharusnya memastikan pemenuhan komitmennya dalam Protokol Kyoto, bukan menyodorkan proposal baru untuk mengamandemen Protokol Kyoto, kata CSF.

Pertemuan Juni merupakan saat yang tepat untuk mengubah arah perjalanan pembicaraan perubahan iklim. "Indonesia sebagai negara yang terkena dampak perubahan iklim harus memainkan peran dalam menentukan arah negosiasi, yaitu tetap fokus pada penurunan emisi secara nyata yang merupakan tujuan awal UNFCCC,” kata Koordinator CSF, Giorgio Budi Indarto.

COP 15 nanti benar-benar merupakan kesempatan terakhir dunia untuk mewujudkan keadilan iklim sehingga CSF meminta agar para delegasi yang hadir dalam Bonn Climate Change Talks II benar-banar mengambil tindakan yang dapat menyelamatkan dunia.

Masyarakat sipil juga meminta agar semua pembicaraan negosiasi Juni, baik mitigasi maupun adaptasi mengadopsi konsep HELP dalam solusi perubahan iklim yang ditawarkannya.

Masyarakat sipil Indonesia tidak akan menoleransi jika skema-skema penanganan perubahan iklim yang ditawarkan berpotensi merugikan masyarakat. Itu sebabnya, setiap tindakan konkret untuk mengatasi dampak perubahan iklim harus diambil tetapi tetap menjamin hak masyarakat.

Hal lain yang menjadi keprihatinan masyarakat sipil adalah mekanisme pendanaan yang seharusnya tidak boleh lagi bergantung pada model utang, proses manipulasi pengurangan emisi negara maju melalui mekanisme offset yang tidak akan dapat menstabilisasi volume GRK secara global.

Bagi Indonesia, upaya adaptasi dan mitigasi yang dilakukan tidak boleh lagi menimbulkan masalah baru, seperti konversi lahan tanaman pangan ke lahan tanaman bahan baku biofuel yang akan mengurangi kapasitas produksi pangan, atau pun mengubah ekosistem rawa gambut dan laut sebagai penyeimbang iklim mikro dan makro yang sangat erat dengan kepentingan ekologi, ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya setempat.

Pengelolaan utang ekologis sebaiknya dilakukan melalui mekanisme transitional justice. Kejahatan-kejahatan lingkungan harus diproses terlebih dahulu untuk menegakkan keadilan kepada para korban, dan untuk pemulihan ekosistem yang telah dirusak dalam praktek-praktek eksploitasi kekayaan alam oleh para korporasi multi nasional.

Forum masyarakat sipil Indonesia untuk keadilan iklim menegaskan, negara maju wajib mengontrol dan mengevaluasi investasi-investasinya di sektor kehutanan-perkebunan, di mana kedua sektor ini memasok kebutuhan primer mereka, yang berdampak kepada pembukaan kawasan hutan dan rawa gambut di Indonesia untuk industri perkebunan sawit dan hutan tanaman industri.

Mereka juga harus memastikan agar proyek-proyek uji coba dan modeling reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) yang didanai tidak melanggar hak-hak masyarakat terhadap kawasan adat, hutan, dan lingkungan hidup di Indonesia.

Tanpa memperhatikan berbagai hal tersebut, penanganan perubahan iklim tidak akan tercapai, dan perundingan UNFCCC hanya menjadi ajang bisnis karbon yang gagal menyelamatkan bumi ini, demikian CSF.

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